JDK 16 is the reference implementation of the standard version of Java, built to follow JDK 15 that came on September 15. Java Development Kit 16 also has two newly introduced new features that include a foreign linker API and strong encapsulation of JDK internals.
JDK 16 – Java Development Kit 16 went to its first release stage on February 4, with the widespread availability of the product announcement fixed for March 16. The latest features in JDK 16 range from the second preview of sealed classes to concurrent thread-stack processing for garbage collection, and pattern matching.
Mentioned Below are Some of the New Features Added in Java 16:
1) Foreign Linker API
Foreign linker API allows statically typed, pure-Java access to the native code. Collectively with the foreign-memory access API, the foreign linker API considerably simplifies the error-prone process of merging to a native library. This program is designed to replace Java Native Interface with a pure-Java development model, to allow C support, to be adequately flexible to provide support for other platforms, like 32-bit x86, and other external functions written in different languages than C, such as C++.
2) Warnings for Value-Based Classes
This indicates the primitive wrapper classes as value-based and opposes their constructors for clearance, indicating new deprecation warnings. Warnings are given about awkward attempts to synchronize at cases of any value-based classes in the Java platform. Primitive classes state instances to be identity-free and be capable of inline or smoothed representations, where instances can be copied easily between encoded using values of instances’ fields and memory locations.
The design and implementation of primitive classes in Java are now mature enough so that the migration of some classes of the Java platform to primitive classes can be easily anticipated. This new JDK 16 allows the author of an interface or class to check the code responsible for implementing it. To reduce the use of a superclass, and for supporting future directions in pattern matching, it provides a more declarative way other than access modifiers.
3) Strong Encapsulation
Effective encapsulation of JDK internals by default. The goal of this proposal involves increasing the maintainability and security of the JDK, encouraging developers to migrate from managing internal elements to utilizing standard APIs so that both end-users and developers can easily update to future Java releases.
4) Moving Z Garbage Collector Thread-Stack Processing
The purpose of this plan includes the removal of thread-stack processing from ZGC save points and provide a mechanism for other Hotspot VM subsystems to slowly process stacks. ZGC is designed to make GC pauses and scalability problems in Hotspot.
5) A Flexible Metaspace Capability
This metaspace capability returns unused Hotspot VM class metaspace memory, decreases metaspace footprint, and explains metaspace code to decrease maintenance costs. This approach is used in places such as the Linux kernel and makes it practical to designate memory in smaller pieces to decrease class-loader overhead, thereby reducing fragmentation.
6) Added C++ 14 Language Features
These features allow the use of C++ 14 abilities in JDK C++ source code and provide specific guidance regarding which of these features may be used in Hotspot VM code. This also includes being able to develop with recent variants of compilers that support C++ 11/14 language features. some build-time changes are needed to take advantage of C++ language features, depending on the platform compiler.
7) Records Classes
These records classes act as transparent carriers for stable data. This effort is the answer to all those complaints that Java has too much ceremony or has been too verbose. The purpose of this program incorporates devising an object-oriented construct that represents an easy aggregation of values, encouraging developers to focus on forming immutable data rather than extensible behavior.
8) A Vector API
A vector API in an incubator stage, to express vector computations that compile to optimal vector hardware instructions on supported CPU architectures, to accomplish better performance. The vector API presents a mechanism to write complex vector algorithms in Java.
9) Pattern Matching
Pattern matching provides common logic in a program, particularly the conditional extraction of components from objects, to be expressed more securely and concisely.
10) jpackage Tool for Packaging Self-Contained Java Applications.
With JDK 16, jpackage proceeds to production, it supports native package formats to provide users a simple installation experience and allow launch-time parameters to be defined at packaging time. Formats comprise pkg and dmg on MacOS, for Linux – deb, and rpm, for Windows – msi, and exe. The tool can be invoked instantly programmatically or from the command line.
11) OpenJDK source code repositories Migration from Mercurial to Git.
Driving this effort are advantages in version control system metadata size and available tools and hosting.
This Java 16 release is the outcome of industry-wide development including weekly builds, open reviews, and extensive collaboration between members of the worldwide Java developer community and Oracle engineers.
The Oracle JDK 16 is an added step in modernization efforts to make it simpler for Java developers to utilize the programming language with microservices, APIs, and additional cloud technologies. This release delivers Records and Pattern Matching. According to Oracle, these two JDK improvement proposals and the other additional JEPs in this release enhance developer productivity and application performance.
This JDK 16 kit incorporates various useful tools for developing and testing programs written in the Java programming language. Similar to earlier releases, contributions have been made to Java 16 from several individuals and organizations in the OpenJDK Community.